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DYSPROSIUM OXIDE,Dysprosium is a chemical element with symbol Dy and atomic number 66. It is a rare earth element with a metallic silver luster. Dysprosium is never found in nature as a free element, though it is found in various minerals, such as xenotime. Naturally occurring dysprosium is composed of 7 isotopes, the most abundant of which is 164Dy.
Dysprosium was first identified in 1886 by Paul Émile Lecoq de Boisbaudran, but was not isolated in pure form until the development of ion exchange techniques in the 1950s. Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications, and as a component of Terfenol-D. Soluble dysprosium salts are mildly toxic, while the insoluble salts are considered non-toxic.
Uses Include:Dysprosium is used, in conjunction with vanadium and other elements, in making laser materials and commercial lighting. Because of dysprosium's high thermal neutron absorption cross-section, dysprosium oxide-nickel cermets are used in neutron-absorbing control rods in nuclear reactors. Dysprosium-cadmium chalcogenides are sources of infrared radiation which is useful for studying chemical reactions. Because dysprosium and its compounds are highly susceptible to magnetization, they are employed in various data storage applications, such as in hard disks.
Neodymium-iron-boron magnets can have up to 6% of the neodymium substituted with dysprosium to raise the coercivity for demanding applications such as drive motors for electric vehicles. This substitution would require up to 100 grams of dysprosium per car produced. Based on Toyota's projected 2 million units per year, the use of dysprosium in applications such as this would quickly exhaust the available supply of the metal. The dysprosium substitution may also be useful in other applications, as it improves the corrosion resistance of the magnets.
Dysprosium is one of the components of Terfenol-D, along with iron and terbium. Terfenol-D has the highest room-temperature magnetostriction of any known material; this property is employed in transducers, wide-band mechanical resonators, and high-precision liquid fuel injectors.
Dysprosium is used in dosimeters for measuring ionizing radiation. Crystals of calcium sulfate or calcium fluoride are doped with dysprosium. When these crystals are exposed to radiation, the dysprosium atoms become excited and luminescent. The luminescence can be measured to determine the degree of exposure to which the dosimeter has been subjected.
Nanofibers of dysprosium compounds have high strength and large surface area; therefore, they can be used for reinforcement of other materials and as a catalyst. Fibers of dysprosium oxide fluoride can be produced by heating an aqueous solution of DyBr3 and NaF to 450 °C at 450 bar pressure for 17 hours. This material is remarkably robust, surviving over 100 hours in various aqueous solutions at temperatures exceeding 400 °C without re-dissolving or aggregating.
Dysprosium iodide and dysprosium bromide are used in high intensity Metal-halide lamps. These compounds dissociate near the hot center of the lamp releasing isolated dysprosium atoms. The latter re-emit light in the green and red part of the spectrum thereby effectively producing bright light.
Several paramagnetic crystal salts of dysprosium (Dysprosium Gallium Garnet, DGG; Dysprosium Aluminum Garnet, DAG; Dysprosium Iron Garnet, DyIG) are used in Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerators.
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Returns & exchanges
I can not offer returns, refunds or exchanges on chemical materials due to the fact that there is no guarantee that the material has not been tampered with and I can not resell it to someone else with confidence that I have the same materials that was originally purchased from my supplier. Therefore I repeat there are NO returns on chemical materials.
I offer exchanges only on Ceramic art for equal or greater value item. The buyer is required to pay to return the original item shipping and the new item shipping as well as 25% restocking fee. Also for clarity the Free shipping is no longer applicable on exchanged items. The new item will be shipped when the original item is received intact and the additional fees have been paid.
No item will be exchanged of a lesser value item with the buyer expecting refund.
Paintings are not returnable