This is an antique itomaki for winding thread for weaving. It is also called 'kiwaku' or 'itowaku'. I am unsure of exact age, but similar ones in craftsmanship are nearly 100 years old. The zakuri (a machine to wind bobbins of this style) were produced until around the 1920s, and itomaki like this stopped being made soon after. This one is wound with recently-made silk yarn, approx. 2.5oz sock weight. The bobbin measures 6" tall x 4" x 4".
Bobbins like this have a central hole which is fitted onto a spooler for easy winding/wrapping. They are quite large, to hold many, many yards of silk for weaving luxurious garments. Today, not so many traditional weavers exist, and tools like this have largely fallen to the wayside in favour of machine-made fabric. They have become very rare, as a result. I have some other empty ones as well.
They are a gorgeous reminder of our not-so-long-ago history, from before factories took over most aspects of our daily lives. Only 100 years ago, most people knew the basics of weaving in the lower classes because they could be expected to make some of their own fabric. Now, these bobbins are used in home decor, as small plant stands, for home weavers who love antique tools, and other reasons.