Rubia tinctorium, Rubia cordifolia, and Morinda citrifolia is one of the oldest dyestuffs. It is frequently used to produce turkey reds, mulberry, orange-red, terra cotta, and in combination with other dyes and dyeing procedures can yield crimson, purple, rust, browns, and near black. The primary dye component is alizarin, which is found in the roots of several plants and trees. Madder is cultivated and grows wild throughout India, South East Asia, Turkey, Europe, South China, parts of Africa, Australia and Japan.
Madder is a complex dyestuff containing over 20 individual chemical substances. Alizarin is the most important because it gives the famous warm Turkey red colour. But also present in this wonderful plant is munjistin, purpurin, and a multitude of yellows and browns. Madder extract is dyed at 2-5% wof for a medium depth of shade.
This Madder extract is Rubia cordifolia. It is dyed at 2-5% wof for a medium depth of shade. Madder dyes develop better in hard water (containing calcium and magnesium salt).
NOTE:- The acidity or alkalinity of the water used for natural dyeing (both in the mordant bath and the dye bath) will affect the colour. Soft water is best for practically all natural dyes with the exception of madder, weld, logwood and brazilwood (sappenwood). These dyes develop better in hard water (containing calcium and magnesium salts). Most natural dyers consider rainwater best (although in places it may be more contaminated than tap water), river water next best, and well or tap water the last choice as it often contains the largest amount of contaminants.